The Influence of Visual Materials Utilization on Teaching of Primary Science
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Combs (1970), which Archibong (2016) quoted, there are two parts to education. Both of these parts are categorized as inputs and outputs. In accordance with his classification, inputs are made up of both human and material resources, whilst outputs are the objectives and results of the educational process.
The utilization of one or the other component must be investigated if one wishes to analyze and evaluate the educational system in order to raise its performance. Both inputs and outputs make up a dynamic, biological whole. Wales (2016) was of the opinion that the employment of instructional materials will help one discover facts glade securely to the memory of students. Visual educational resources are of critical relevance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum.
Wales (2016) believed that the utilization of instructional materials would help students retain newly acquired data. A well-thought-out and creative use of visual aids in lectures should significantly reduce indifference, complement the shortcomings of books, and pique students’ interest by providing them with something concrete to see and do. By making the lesson appealing to the students and grabbing their attention, choosing resources that are relevant to the fundamental principles of a course or lesson aids in their learning and motivates them to learn (Walter, 2014). He offered a list of teaching resources that may be utilized to teach primary science.
The selection of materials that are related to the basic concepts of a course or a lesson helps in-depth understanding of such a lesson by the pupils in that, they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention to them, and motivating them to learn (Walter, 2014). He suggested a catalog of aids that could be used to teach Primary Science. He advocated the use of realia which will help children ground their thought and feelings.
By so doing realia are used as alternatives to real objects and materials where it is impossible to show pupils the real objects, they do serve effectively in teaching and learning. Therefore, the teacher is seen as the implementing factor for the goal of education to be achieved. In order to obtain a just and egalitarian society as clearly spelled out in Nigerian National Policy on Education (2004), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped with visual materials to promote sound and effective teaching.
The scarcity of suitable textbooks, teachers, and libraries constrains the educational system from responding to new demands, quoted from educational researchers like; Oluyori (2012), and Balogun (2013). Fayemi (2014) stated that Primary Science is a natural and pure science that deals with the study of life and the existence of nature and living things in it. Primary Science is one of the subjects taught at the Primary school level.
It aims at introducing pupils to their environments, explaining natural phenomena and other things about the environment they are living in, for the purpose of creating awareness in the pupils as well as enhancing their creativity and understanding The need for visual materials is very indispensable for teaching pupils at the primary school level because pupils at this age (3-12) can hardly learn in abstraction in enumerating such factors.
According to Eshiet (2014), the usage of visual aids in science instruction has grown significantly, which has an effect on students’ academic achievement. It is justified to investigate the use of visual resources for teaching primary science in primary schools in the Uyo Local Government Area based on the author’s results that were previously presented.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills, and attitudes from teachers to learners. In Nigeria, spoken language in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective in producing desired learning outcomes, this has been a major concern to parents, especially in Uyo Local Government Area.
The failure in the sciences and in particular Primary Science examination has been of great concern to the parents, teachers, and even the pupils in general. This poor learning outcome of pupils is a result of the non-utilization of visual materials in teaching Primary Science, the use of non-realia visual materials, and gender disparity in the use of visual materials ( Wales, 2016).
Therefore, this study is an attempt to determine the influence of visual materials utilization on the teaching of Primary Science Primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to determine the influence of visual materials utilization on the teaching of Primary Science Primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study sought to;
- Determine the influence of realia materials utilization on the teaching of primary Science in Primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
- Investigate the influence of Textbook materials utilization on the teaching of Primary Science in Primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study was designed to determine the use of visual materials in the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area. . Consequently, knowledge passed onto the pupils at different levels of educational instruction should be well planned and properly allied with relevant visual materials for clarity and comprehensibility.
To the pupils, the effective use of visual material will enable them to effectively learn and retain what they learned thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question.
To the teachers, it will help teachers to teach effectively in class.
To the researchers, it will serve as resource materials for further studies on related fields.
Finally, the use of visual materials in this study will enhance and have high value in imparting information to the learners and the teachers at large.
1.5 Research Questions
For proper facilitation of this investigation, the following research questions were addressed to guide the study.
- To what extent does the utilization of realia materials influence the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools?
- To what extent does the utilization of textbook materials influence the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at a 0.05 level of significance:
- There is no significant influence of realia materials utilization on the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools.
- There is no significant influence of textbook materials utilization on the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Limitations are bound to occur in writing research of this kind such as;
Culture: The culture of the research area was not conducive for the researcher to carry out his research effectively. This was due to the kind of belief in terms of masquerade played in the area, which restricted the researcher to execute his task in time.
Poor Road Network: means of transportation in the area were inadequate to convey the researcher to the school in time. Due to this, the researcher always reports to school late which results in a shortage or limited time and duration for the delivery of work.
Time: The limited time given to carry out this research work also posed a great constraint as such many schools that were supposed to be included were eliminated.
Financial constraint: Due to financial constraints, the study was specifically limited to only eight(8) public Primary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study only concentrated on the utilization of visual materials in the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools in the Uyo Local Government Area. The scope of this study focused on the influence of realia materials utilization and textbook materials utilization on the teaching of Primary Science in Primary Schools.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined as used in the study:
Visual materials: These are materials that stimulate the sensory made of vision. They are also resources that appeal to the sense of sight. They include pictures, charts, models, realia, textbooks, etc. they make a lesson more clearer and understandable to the students.
Teaching: The art of helping others learn effectively and change their behavior.
Textbook: This is a teaching aid used in giving instructions in any subject which is used especially in schools.
Realia: This refers to real objects used for teaching by the teacher.
Utilization: The act of using something, especially for a practical purpose.